Trump informed the Chinese leader personally of the strike and Chinese officials later warned against a "further deterioration" of the situation in Syria.
When Xi came to the U.S. two years ago, Trump attacked the former president Barack Obama's red-carpet welcome, claiming he would have offered a Big Mac rather than a state dinner to a leader whose country he has accused of "raping" the American economy.
The missile launches coincided with Trump's first official encounter with Chinese President Xi Jinping in Florida to discuss North Korea, among other things.
Trump, meanwhile, was accompanied by a good portion of his Cabinet: Secretary of State Rex Tillerson (who greeted Xi at the airport), Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin, and Defense Secretary James Mattis, as well as National Security Advisor H.R. McMaster. Happily for such America Firsters, Syria was not the only foreign policy test faced by Mr Trump this week.
Inside the luxurious resort Trump waxed lyrical that it was a "great honour" to host the Chinese leader, breaking the ice with a joke about his own dealmaking prowess.
The mood at the summit was upbeat.
USA disappointed by Russia's reaction to its airstrike on Syrian airbase - Tillerson
President Donald Trump has spoken by telephone with South Korea's leader to discuss Syria and North Korea. University student Ashraf Fadel said he came to denounce "the unjust American aggression against Syria".
The mother-of-three was eager to send a warm welcome to Xi and his wife Peng Liyuan during their first-ever meeting with Trump in Palm Beach, Florida, on Thursday (US time).
Trump said in a brief appearance before reporters Friday that he and Xi made "tremendous progress" in their talks and that he believes "lots of very potentially bad problems will be going away".
"I'm not advocating pre-emptive war, nor do I think that the deployment of nuclear weapons buys more for us than it costs". In an implicit criticism, without naming the United States, she said: "China never interferes in the internal affairs of other countries" and "always opposed the use of force in global relations".
Although China is not implicated in the Syrian war, Trump will have been keen to appear resolute and decisive as the rivals size each other up and spar over trade and North Korea. The statement also said Trump had accepted Xi's invitation to visit China sometime in the next year.
The two leaders established US China Comprehensive Dialogue, elevating their dialogue status.
Walker said he was eager to tell Xi about the abundance of Alaska's resource development opportunities. No new deals or concrete proposals were unveiled at the meeting, however.
Serbia into Davis Cup semi-finals
Sock lost his singles on Friday in Brisbane, but replaced Sam Querrey in the doubles and came through for USA captain Jim Courier. Bemelmans and de Loore had a match point to win the tie in the fifth set tiebreak but the Italians nicked it 8-6.
Those strikes added weight to Trump's threat last week to act unilaterally against North Korea's weapons program.
Mr Trump wants China to do more to deter the development of nuclear weapons by North Korea, its ally, and these analysts viewed the Syria attack as a reminder to Mr Xi that the United States could also attack the North, if necessary. -China cooperation on non-proliferation.
Wang Dong, associate professor of worldwide studies at China's elite Peking University, said the move may have had the added bonus in Trump's eyes of sending North Korea a message over its nuclear program, but that China was unlikely to be fazed.
The Republican president, who took office on January 20, tweeted last week that the United States could no longer tolerate massive trade deficits and job losses and that his meeting with Xi "will be a very hard one".
Instead, the decision to blast 60 Tomahawk missiles from a US Navy destroyer to wreak havoc inside Syria sends an entirely different signal that will put Damascus and other rogue regimes on notice and shape relations with Syria's ally and protector Russian Federation just as Secretary of State Rex Tillerson is set to visit Moscow.
North Korea's ambassador to Moscow also weighed in on Trump's airstrikes specifically, threatening a "most ruthless blow" against the United States should the United States exercises "even the smallest provocation" against Pyongyang, a sign that North Korea interpreted the attack on Syria as a warning to other rogue states like itself that America was not afraid of military responses to worldwide human rights law violations.
US Strikes Against Syrian Gov't Troops Violate International Law - Lavrov
Syria has made a defiant response to the USA missile attack on one its air bases, flying several planes from the bombed airfield. Hamade said Iranian military advisers were active at the base, though it was not possible to independently confirm the claim.